The steering system controls the direction of motion of a motor driven vehicle. There is various steering type.

A basic steering system

It has 3 main parts

  1. Steering box which connects to the steering wheel. These are of two types basically:
    1. Those with worm gearing
    2. Those with rack-and-pinion gearing
  2. A linkage which connects the wheel assemblies at the front wheels to the steering box.
  3. A front suspension to let the wheel assemblies pivot with each other

Types of Steering System

  1. Wheeled Vehicle Steering

It ensures that wheels point at the right and desired directions. The series of linkages, pivots, rods and gears help to achieve the functionality.

  1. Four-Wheel Steering

It is employed by some vehicles to improve steering response and increase vehicle stability.

  • Active four-wheeling steering

At the time of steering, all the four wheels turn where the rear wheels are turned by computer. There are however option to steer only the rear wheel independent of front wheel steering.

  • Crab Steering

It is a special type of active four-wheel steering which operates by steering the entire four wheels in same angle and same direction

  • Passive rear wheel steering

It uses the lateral forces generated in a turn through suspension geometry.

  1. Power Steering

It helps the driver to steer some if its power in assistance to swill and steer the wheels about their rotating axis. Here, the effort needed to turn the wheel about the steering axis increases. There are two types of power steering systems:

  • Hydraulic power steering system
  • Electrical power steering system
  1. Speed Sensitive Steering

It’s an advanced power steering system which is heavily assisted in low speed and lightly at high speed.

  1. Articulated Steering

Here, the vertical hinge connect the front and rear halves through one or more hydraulic cylinders. The steering in this type of steering is due to change in angle between the rear and front axles.

  1. Rear Wheel Steering

It is termed to be unstable as it decreases the turn radius as the steering geometry changes during the turns.